Adware can be defined as a bundle of programs that is designed to bombard users with advertisements. The main aim behind it is to redirect the user’s search requests to advertising websites and collect marketing data.

Adware tracks user’s online activity, slow down the device’s performance, displays customized ads and gets malware downloaded at the back end and also eats lots of data costs.


A botnet is a bunch of several Internet-connected devices such as PCs, mobiles, servers and IoT devices that are infectious and are controlled by a specific type of malware.

A blend of two terms, robot and network, botnets are networks of robots that are used to commit crimes in the cyber world.


Clickfraud happens when artificially created bogus clicks are used to manipulate Pay-Per-Click (PPC) advertising. The idea behind this practice is to increase the number of payable clicks, in order to generate revenue to advertisers.

cyber espionage

Cyber espionage describes the practice of spying on someone to gain illegal access to confidential information. Often the prime targets of this type of cybercrime are large institutions and government organizations, although individuals are also vulnerable.

cyber security

Cyber security is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access.

dark web

The dark web is just a small portion of deep web that has thousands of dark sites where a large majority of illegal activities are executed.

The dark web is characterized as the part of the Internet that is not visible to regular users, and as a small part of a vast network of websites and portals that are not categorized by search engines.


end-to-end encryption

End-to-end encryption is a method of protecting and securing communication that hinders third parties from accessing data when it is transferred from one device to another.

evil twin

An evil twin is a fake Wi-Fi hotspot or access point that poses to be original and safe, but it’s actually set up to snoop on another wireless network or device.

exploit kits

Exploit kits are packages of automated threats that are used by attackers to launch exploits against vulnerable programs. Exploits are designed to cause unexpected behaviors that an attacker can take advantage of to perform harmful actions.


A firewall is a defensive technology that is focused on keeping bad guys out of one’s network. It acts as a virtual barrier that protects both internal and external cyber-attacks that might attack your personal computer.

It keeps a check on all unauthorized access to or from a private network and also determines which entry should be allowed, or not, to interact with your computer.


A gateway acts as a bridge between two networks that connect using different protocols.



Hashing is an encryption algorithm that converts the plaintext password into hashes. It’s a form of cryptographic security method that is used to transform strings of characters into shorter fixed-length value that proxies as the original string.

handshaking procedures

The process by which two information systems establish a communication channel, handshaking begins when one device sends content to another device for identifying, syncing, and authenticating.

identity theft

Sometimes also referred to as identity fraud, identity theft involves the unauthorized theft of someone’s personal information and then using it in an illicit way to gain some benefit, often of monetary value.


An intrusion detection system is a software or device that functions to monitor network traffic for malicious activity. These detection systems help in identifying suspicious activity, logging relevant information, and attempting to block and report such activity.

IP spoofing

IP spoofing, or IP address forgery, is a hijacking technique in which a bad actor poses as a trusted host to disguise someone’s identity, hijack browsers, or gain access to a network. 

Though it’s not an illegal act of its own to spoof an IP Address, it is a technique often used in committing illegal activities.



Often referred to as keystroke logging, a keylogger is a computer program that keeps a log of your keystrokes on your keyboard. The entire log is saved in a log file which is encrypted and can be shared with different receivers for different purposes. 

It can track all the sensitive information like passwords and PIN (Personal Identification Number) in real-time and can be used for hijacking your personal accounts.


Malware is a troupe of all malicious programs like viruses, Trojan horses and spyware. It is a malicious program that reaches a target computer and runs the scripts which take complete control over all computing functions of the target computer. For example, malware can hijack all sensitive information stored on the target device, or it can encrypt files and hold this information ransom.

mobile banking trojans

Mobile banking trojans refer to the practice of a bad actor overlaying a Trojan interface onto a legitimate mobile banking app interface, allowing the bad actor to intercept the end user input credentials used to login to his/her banking account.


Pharming is a malicious mechanism which redirects a user to a fake site or service that appears identical to the authentic site or service. A victim user will enter all relevant credentials into the duplicate site considering it to be the legitimate one, compromising all affiliated information in the process.



Phishing is the fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers.


Ransomware can be any malicious software that encrypts data found on an individual’s or enterprise system. Once the data is encrypted, the bad actor responsible for the malware will demand a ransom in order to decrypt (unlock) the data being held hostage. 

Most often, the ransomware payment is denominated in bitcoin as it is highly liquid and accepted in nearly all parts of the world.

reverse engineering

In software testing, reverse engineering aids testers' understanding of viral and other malware code. In software security, reverse engineering is widely used to ensure that the system lacks any major security flaws or vulnerability. It helps to make a system robust, thereby protecting it from hackers and spyware.

social engineering

Social engineering, in the context of information security, is the psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. 

trojan horse

A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is a type of malware that is often disguised as legitimate software. Trojans can be employed by cyber-thieves looking to gain access to users' systems. Users are typically tricked by some form of social engineering into loading and executing Trojans on their systems.


A zero-day vulnerability is a computer-software vulnerability that is unknown to, or unaddressed by, those who should be interested in mitigating the vulnerability. Until the vulnerability is mitigated, hackers can exploit it to adversely affect computer programs, data, additional computers or a network.